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Feed Water Appliances
by Anon
Binding: Paperback, 52 pages
Publisher: Pratt Press
Weight: 0.17 pound
Dimension: H: 0.75 x L: 8.5 x W: 0.48 inches
ISBN 10: 1409703274
ISBN 13: 9781409703273
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Book Description:
CHAPTER I IMPURITIES IN FEED WATER FOR BOILERS Pure water is a chemical compound made up of two parts hydrogen . and one Part oxygcn, by volurne, and welghs 62.4 pounds per cubic foot at a temperature of 62 degrees F. It is never found in a pure state under natural conditions, as it absorbs large quantities of various Inlpurities in its passage through the air, and in filtering through the earth before it reaches the wells or streams from which i t is drawn for use in boiler plants or for other purposes. The impurities commonly . found in feed water may be classed under three heads, as lollon s . 1. Those causing the formation of scale these impurities include calcium carbonate, calcium sulphate, magnesium carbonate, and nlag nesium sulphate. 2. Those having a corrosive action, such as sulphuric acid, car bonic acid, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and sulphate of iron. 3. Alkaline impurities these include sodium carbonate, sodium sulphate, sodium chloride, potassium carbonate, potassium sulphate, and potassium chloride, In addition to the above impurities may be mentioned various substances held in buspension, such as organic matter, mud, oil, etc. Calcit nz carbonate is commonly known as carbonate of lime, and is I Pound in the form of limestone, marble, or chalk. It is soluble in water containing carbonlc acid gas carbon dioxide, and is more soluble in cold than in hot water. It forms only a soft mucl in boilers, unless cemented into a scale by the presence of calcium sulphate. In the case of economizers, where the water is at a comparatively low temperature, a hard scale is formed. C Zcium suipl ate, or sulphate of lime, is most comnlonly known as gypsum or plaster of paris. It is soluble in water free from carbonic acld at moderately low temperatures. Calcium sulphate in the feed n ater causes a hard scale which ia difficult to remove. When mixed with mud, or the sludge from calcium carbonate, It also forms a scale of considerable hardness. KO scale is formed in the pipes of economizers by this substance, however, on account of the low temperature of the water. Magltesium carbonutc is commonly called magnesia, and 1s insoluble in pure water. It is held in solution if sufficient carbonic acid gas is present, the same as calcium carbonate, and is precipitated if this gas is driven off. Magnesium sulphate sulphate of magnesia or Epsom salts dissolves very sloxvly in cold water, but dissolves easily in warm water. It is a yery common substance, and does not of itself form scale, but when present with calciunl carbonate, a chemical reaction takes place wnich produces hydrate of magnesia and calciunl sulphate, resulting in the formation of a very hard scale. Sulphuric acid is found largely in the drainage from coal and ore mines, and also comes Prom paper mills, galvanizing works, chemical works, oil refineries, etc. Jts presence is indicated by a dark green tinge in the water. Lt becomes noticeable in the boiler after a short time by giving to the water a red color, due to a combination of the acid with the iron plates of the boiler. Kitric, tannic, and acetic acids have a similar effect, although much less pronounccd. Carbonic acid. Free carbon dioxide, or carbonic acid gas, is very corrosive to boiIer plates. This most Frequently comes from rotting organic matter which is present in the water. Xa, gnesium chloride...

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